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The Mariner project created the Mariner series of space probes. These were the first space probes to return locally collected data on the atmospheres and surfaces of the planets Mercury, Venus, and Mars. Of the ten Mariner space probes originally constructed, three failed during launch:

    Mariner 1
    Mariner 3
    Mariner 8

Fortunately, the Mariner project probes were launched in pairs, and the sister probes successfully completed their missions.

Four Mariner space probes were successfully sent to Mars:

    Mariner 4
    Mariner 6
    Mariner 7
    Mariner 9

Mariner 4 produced the first high resolution photographs of the Martian surface. Mariner 9 was the first space probe to orbit another planet, and provided the first up close observation of Martian dust storms.

Mariners 2 and 5 conducted flyby missions to the planet Venus, and Mariner 10 was the first successful mission to the planet Mercury. Two other Mariner probes to Venus were also proposed, Mariner R and Mariner A, but were never built.

Online Textbooks

External Links

Category:Space Probes